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 Bart Kamp, Amaia Martínez, Cristina Oyon and Rakel Vázquez 
 Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Papers Series, WP 14/2019  

English // Keywords:  Basque Industry 4.0, industrial policy, digital transformation, backshoring 


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This paper introduces the agenda for the Basque Country’s industrial transformation, which  promotes resource efficient manufacturing by taking advantage of digitalization to incorporate added value to processes, products and services. This strategy builds on previous business development strategies and plans, research and innovation which together represent a sustainable industrial policy viewed internationally as a success story. 

This paper analyses the results of a large-scale survey conducted by the Basque Business Development Agency (SPRI) on the adoption of digital technologies and examines the degree with which Basque firms expect that the uptake of digital technologies will impact on the location of their manufacturing activities. Insights into the motivations underlying the acquisition of foreign production plants by a set of Basque firms interviewed are also presented.

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