Edurne Magro, Bart Kamp, Miren Larrea, Angélica Rodríguez y Agustín Zubillaga 
 Basque Institute of Competitiveness-Deusto Foundation



The socio-economic crisis resulting from the global pandemic caused by COVID-19 has had a heterogeneous impact on European countries, despite being a global crisis. Consequently, the impacts of the crisis vary in scale from country to country and region to region depending on the following factors: the duration and degree of restrictions imposed to tackle the health crisis, theterritorial productive specialization and its contextual characteristics and pre-crisis conditions.

All these aspects will affect the recovery and, therefore, are key factors in analyzing the resilience of countries in the face of crises. In this way, the political measures implemented to face crises such as that of COVID-19 must respond not only to the nature of the crisis, but also to the context and specific characteristics of the countries.

With this perspective, this report aims to present an overview of the political responses implemented in response to the emergence of the pandemic in a first phase ofresistance in three European contexts: the Basque Country, Baden-Württemberg and Upper Austria.These three regions have similar structural characteristics, especially those relating to productive specialization and the degree of regional autonomy, although they are located in three very different national contexts within the European Union’s umbrella.