230015 Portada cast

 Jorge Fernández Gómez, Macarena Larrea Basterra
Basque Institute of Competitiveness - Deusto Foundation

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This report reviews the energy transition and decarbonization strategies of three European regions (Grand Est/Grand Reims, in France; Scotland, in the United Kingdom; and North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany) and the "energy regions" defined in the Netherlands at the sub-provincial level. The aim of the paper is to characterize these strategies and the associated action plans and to extract lessons and learnings with potential application in the Basque Country on how other territories and regions are approaching, from a subnational perspective, the process of greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy transition. The analysis of the cases under study shows the importance of (a) designing strategies and solutions adapted to the economic, energy and social reality of each territory, (b) establishing governance systems that promote efficient collaboration between agents and social support for the transition, (c) involving the R&D, training and financing ecosystems in the support of innovative business fabric and in the development of systemic solutions for the decarbonization of the different sectors of activity.