Given that no new patent data have been published since the previous competitiveness report was released, it has not been possible to update this analysis. Therefore, we highlight here the conclusions presented in the report: the Basque Country is particularly specialised in mechanical engineering and other industries (especially the fields of furniture and civil engineering), and to a rather lesser extent, in chemicals. The greatest underspecialisation (when compared to the European average) is in electronic engineering, with a weakness in patents linked to ICT. This offers a window of opportunity given the importance Industry 4.0 will take on in the future to foster advanced manufacturing and opportunity niches such as the creative industries.
As regards to the branches of the economy for which patents are sought, those linked to metals are particularly noteworthy, especially machinery as well as metallurgy and metal products. The greatest underspecialisation is found in electrical equipment and IT services, which may also be an obstacle to developing the Industry 4.0 strategy.